The **Collatz conjecture** is an unsolved conjecture in mathematics named after Lothar Collatz, who first proposed it in 1937. The conjecture is also known as the 3n + 1 conjecture, the **Ulam conjecture** (after Stanisław Ulam), **Kakutani’s problem** (after Shizuo Kakutani), the **Thwaites conjecture** (after Sir Bryan Thwaites), **Hasse’s algorithm** (after Helmut Hasse), or the **Syracuse problem** the sequence of numbers involved is referred to as the hailstone sequence or hailstone numbers or as wondrous numbers

Take any natural number n. If n is even, divide it by 2 to get n / 2, if n is odd multiply it by 3 and add 1 to obtain 3n + 1. Repeat the process (which has been called “Half Or Triple Plus One”, or **HOTPO**) indefinitely. The conjecture is that no matter what number you start with, you will always eventually reach 1. The property has also been called **oneness**

**Paul Erdős** said about the Collatz conjecture: “Mathematics is not yet ready for such problems.” He offered $500 for its solution. – Grateful to Wikipedia for this wonderful introduction.

Consider the following operation on an arbitrary positive integer:

* If the number is even, divide it by two.

* If the number is odd, triple it and add one.

In modular arithmetic notation, define the function f as follows:

Now, form a sequence by performing this operation repeatedly, beginning with any positive integer, and taking the result at each step as the input at the next.

The Collatz conjecture is: This process will eventually reach the number 1, regardless of which positive integer is chosen initially.

For instance, starting with n = 6, one gets the sequence 6, 3, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1.

n = 11, for example, takes longer to reach 1: 11, 34, 17, 52, 26, 13, 40, 20, 10, 5, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1.

The sequence for n = 27, listed and graphed below, takes 111 steps, climbing to 9232 before descending to 1.

Pseudo code:

function collatz(n)
while n > 1
show n
if n is odd then
set n = 3n + 1
else
set n = n / 2
endif
endwhile
show n

Cool Application or Visual Property

Iterating a optimized collatz map in the complex plane produces the Collatz fractal.

Collatz iterations on the Ulam Spiral can be seen in this video

An online collatz chain length calculator can be found here

Programming:

ACM question. : 3n+1 problem [you can find Java and C++ implementation in the link]

Consider the following algorithm to generate a sequence of numbers. Start with an

integer n. If n is even, divide by 2. If n is odd, multiply by 3 and add 1. Repeat this

process with the new value of n, terminating when n = 1. For example, the following

sequence of numbers will be generated for n = 22:

22 11 34 17 52 26 13 40 20 10 5 16 8 4 2 1

It is conjectured (but not yet proven) that this algorithm will terminate at n = 1 for

every integer n. Still, the conjecture holds for all integers up to at least 1, 000, 000.

For an input n, the cycle-length of n is the number of numbers generated up to and

including the 1. In the example above, the cycle length of 22 is 16. Given any two

numbers i and j, you are to determine the maximum cycle length over all numbers

between i and j, including both endpoints.

Input

The input will consist of a series of pairs of integers i and j, one pair of integers per

line. All integers will be less than 1,000,000 and greater than 0.

Output

For each pair of input integers i and j, output i, j in the same order in which they

appeared in the input and then the maximum cycle length for integers between and

including i and j. These three numbers should be separated by one space, with all three

numbers on one line and with one line of output for each line of input.

Sample Input

1 10

100 200

201 210

900 1000

Sample Output

1 10 20

100 200 125

201 210 89

900 1000 174

Problem 14 – Project Euler

The following iterative sequence is defined for the set of positive integers:

n → n/2 (n is even)

n → 3n + 1 (n is odd)

Using the rule above and starting with 13, we generate the following sequence:

13 → 40 → 20 → 10 → 5 → 16 → 8 → 4 → 2 → 1

It can be seen that this sequence (starting at 13 and finishing at 1) contains 10 terms. Although it has not been proved yet (Collatz Problem), it is thought that all starting numbers finish at 1.

Which starting number, under one million, produces the longest chain?

NOTE: Once the chain starts the terms are allowed to go above one million.

import time
ulam = { 1: 1 }
def collatz(n):
if not n in ulam:
ulam[n] = collatz(3*n+1 if n%2 else n/2) + 1
return ulam[n]
max = (0,0)
limit = raw_input("Enter the Max limit: ")
limit = int(limit)
index = raw_input("Enter the starting Number: ")
index = int(index)
#limit = 200
start = time.strftime('%s')
if index % 2 == 0:
for i in range(index+3,limit,2):
length = collatz(i)
if length > max[1]: max = (i,length)
if index % 2 != 0:
for i in range(index,limit,2):
length = collatz(i)
if length > max[1]: max = (i,length)
end = time.strftime('%s')
time = int(end) - int(start)
print "(Number, Chain Length) =", max
print "Time to execute the algorithm =", time ,"Second(s)"

OUTPUT:

labuser@ubuntu:~$ python collatz.py

Enter the Max limit: 1000000

Enter the starting Number: 0

(Number, Chain Length) = (837799, 525)

Time to execute the algorithm = 10 Second(s)

labuser@ubuntu:~$

labuser@ubuntu:~$ python collatz.py

Enter the Max limit: 10

Enter the starting Number: 1

(Number, Chain Length) = (9, 20)

Time to execute the algorithm = 0 Second(s)

labuser@ubuntu:~$

labuser@ubuntu:~$ python collatz.py

Enter the Max limit: 200

Enter the starting Number: 100

(Number, Chain Length) = (171, 125)

Time to execute the algorithm = 0 Second(s)

labuser@ubuntu:~$ python collatz.py

Enter the Max limit: 210

Enter the starting Number: 201

(Number, Chain Length) = (207, 89)

Time to execute the algorithm = 0 Second(s)

labuser@ubuntu:~$

labuser@ubuntu:~$ python collatz.py

Enter the Max limit: 1000

Enter the starting Number: 900

(Number, Chain Length) = (937, 174)

Time to execute the algorithm = 0 Second(s)